Maslow doesn’t think that self-actualizers are perfect, of
There were several flaws or imperfections he discovered
the way as
well: First, they often suffered considerable anxiety and
but realistic anxiety and guilt, rather than misplaced or neurotic
Some of them were absentminded and overly kind. And finally,
of them had unexpected moments of ruthlessness, surgical coldness,
loss of humor.
Implicit measures of self-esteem began to be used in the 1980s.  These rely on indirect measures of cognitive processing thought to be linked to implicit self-esteem , including the Name Letter Task .  Such indirect measures are designed to reduce awareness of the process of assessment. When used to assess implicit self-esteem, psychologists feature self-relevant stimuli to the participant and then measure how quickly a person identifies positive or negative stimuli.  For example, if a woman was given the self-relevant stimuli of female and mother, psychologists would measure how quickly she identified the negative word, evil, or the positive word, kind.