At the district level, the District Magistrate/Collector/Commissioner carries out all government plans and activities for disaster management. A District Management Committee is set up under the District Magistrate with officials from the Health, Irrigation, Veterinary, Water and Sanitation Departments, etc. and representatives of NGOs as members of this Committee. It helps in the preparation of District Disaster Management Plan and appoints District Management Teams which are action groups trained in latest technologies of natural disasters like the health and fire services, etc.
With a higher propensity to invest comes the debt-driven crisis that Minsky predicted, and which we experienced in 2008. However, something that Minsky did not predict, but which did happen in the real world, also occurs in this model: the crisis is preceded by a period of apparent economic tranquillity that superficially looks the same as the transition to equilibrium in the good outcome. Before the crisis begins, there is a period of diminishing volatility in unemployment, as shown in Figure 4: the cycles in employment (and wages share) diminish, and at a faster rate than the convergence to equilibrium in the good outcome shown in Figure 3.
The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government. India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unanimously.